All posts by John Stockton

I spoke at our local high school veterans day assembly and found that very few people, especially young people, out here in the country know anything about the military. So, in January 2017 I started a column in our local weekly paper, titled "Life in the Army", in an attempt to educate people about normal life in the military. I retired from the army, as a master sergeant, in 1984. I spent a total of about 10 years in the 82nd Airborne Division, two tours in Vietnam, one with the 101st Airborne Division, one split between USARV, HQ and the 5th Special Forces Group. I was in the infantry, and in administration. I was a Drill Sergeant for two years, and three years of ROTC duty. I have tried to keep up ever since.

ETHICS

This was originally published April 5th, 2017 in the Belle Banner, Belle Missouri.
I enlisted in the Army August 30th, 1961, fifteen years after my Dad was discharged, from the 82nd Airborne Division at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. I went through basic training at Fort Knox, Kentucky, advanced infantry training at Fort Gordon, Georgia, and Airborne School at Fort Benning, Georgia. The day we made our last jump in airborne school, the Sergeants told us; “You are now paratroopers, you can whip any five Marines”. Some went to the bars downtown that night and tried it. They were carried back to the barracks, and didn’t look so good for graduation the next morning. I was then assigned to the 82nd Airborne Division at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. It was after sundown when we arrived, by bus, at the 82nd Replacement Detachment. A very tough sounding Sergeant briefed us on where things were located. The enlisted club was at the end of the street. The Sergeant told us that paratroopers didn’t drink that slop beer, paratroopers drank whiskey. At that time, if you were in the Army you could drink alcohol on post, regardless of age. Three years later I made Sergeant. The tradition then was to “wet down the stripes” of a new Sergeant, because he could now go to the NCO (Non-commissioned Officer) Club. The NCO club held “Happy Hour” every day the first hour after work, during which drinks were half price. Young officers held a ceremony called a “Prop Blast” to welcome new lieutenants. Prop blast is what paratroopers feel when they exit a propeller driven airplane, except in that case it culminated with the new lieutenant having to drink an unknown alcoholic concoction from a silver chalice.
Vietnam was terrible for the Army. I have not read Lieutenant General H. R. McMasters’ book “Dereliction of Duty”, but I have read much of the research material he used. After the Battle of Ia Drang Valley in November 1965 (realistically portrayed in the movie “We Were Soldiers”) Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara visited Vietnam specifically to find out what happened at Ia Drang. After that visit, he could not foresee a way the US could win in Vietnam, he recommended leaving Vietnam then. In December 1965, President Johnson met with McNamara and others and decided to send more troops to General Westmoreland in Vietnam. President Lyndon Johnson had no real military experience. He was a Texas congressman when World War II started, he was placed on active duty as a Navy Lieutenant Commander and “observed” a couple operations, and was then recalled to the US Congress. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara was teaching accounting at Harvard, and went on active duty in 1943, as a Captain in the US Army Air Corps, and spent the war in the Office of Statistical Control, doing analysis of bomber runs. After the war he helped rebuild Ford Motor Company and become known as one of Ford’s “Whiz Kids”. President Kennedy selected McNamara as Secretary of Defense because he wanted a smart man in that job. Kennedy was a war hero himself and understood war. In 1964, William C. Westmoreland was the Commander of 18th Airborne Corps at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. He was considered one of the top generals in the Army. He was a fine, smart man. I saw him greet sergeants he had met one time 10 years prior, call them by name and talk about what they were doing back then. He was promoted to 4 stars and given command of the Military Assistance Command Vietnam (MACV). In retrospect I think that is where he reached his peter principle. In case you’re not familiar, in 1969 Dr. Lawrence J. Peter wrote a book called “The Peter Principle”. His thesis was, that in a large organization a person can do a good job and keep getting promoted up the line until he is promoted into a job he can’t handle. The military situation in Vietnam started improving when Westmoreland was replaced in 1968, but by then it was too late, the country had already turned against the war. The My Lai Massacre was on March 16th 1968, during which, between 350 and 500 Vietnamese civilians, including old women and children, were lined up and murdered by a US Army infantry platoon. The Platoon Leader, Lieutenant William Calley, was convicted of murdering 22 unarmed civilians, but only spent three months in military prison. It was national news for weeks, and many felt the lieutenant was simply a scapegoat. But, when all the facts were known, it was cold blooded murder of hundreds. The cause was a terrible leadership climate. In following months and years, charges were filed against the entire chain of command, including the Division Commander, a Major General.
In World War II units were shipped overseas and stayed, as did all the soldiers who went with them, for the duration of the war. In Vietnam it was decided that soldiers would only spend one year there, then return to the US, so units were constantly having experienced people leave and inexperienced people arrive. Company and battalion commanders spent six months to the hour in command, then moved, so more officers could get their “command time”, in a combat area. The enemy used drugs as a weapon. Heroin and pot were cheap and plentiful. A vile of 90% heroin was $2.00, I found them lying around bunkers. In some units, it didn’t have to be dark for the pot smell to fill the air in the evening. Back at Fort Bragg, a list of suspected drug users was sent weekly up the chain to Division Headquarters.
It was around that time that the leadership of the Army started attempting to change the ethical and moral culture of the Army. For about 30 years every Chief of Staff of the Army gave guidance to those writing manuals and lesson plans on the subjects of professional ethics and leadership. Army leadership developed and debated values that should be taught and finally established seven core values. Loyalty – Bear true faith and allegiance to the U.S. Constitution, the Army, your unit and other Soldiers. Duty – Fulfill your obligations. Accomplish tasks as a member of a team. Respect – Treat people with dignity and respect. Selfless Service – Put the welfare of the nation, the Army and your subordinates before your own. Honor – Live up to Army values. Integrity – Do what’s right, legally and morally. Personal Courage – Face fear, danger or adversity (physical or moral). They are arranged to form the acronym LDRSHIP. By the 1990’s complete core and advanced courses in ethics were taught at West Point, the US Army War College, the Command and General Staff College and the 18 other Army service schools, and the ROTC Cadet Command. In 1998 the Army started teaching the seven core values in basic training. Army values have become more than just classes, they are pushed and emphasized as who soldiers are, and how they live.
Spiritual fitness has long been recognized by Army leadership, as a necessary component of a soldiers’ character. General George Patton recognized the power of spiritual strength when he circulated 250,000 copies of a weather prayer, one for every soldier in the Third Army, during the Battle of the Bulge. In Operation Desert Storm, in 1990, more than 15,000 soldiers of the 18th Airborne Corps attended worship one Sunday morning before the ground war began. Unit ministry teams, consisting of a Chaplain and a Chaplains’ Assistant are in every unit down to battalion level.
In 1970 there were three main NCO Clubs, two officer clubs and 11 annexes on Fort Bragg, North Carolina. Now there is one “Club” open to the public and all ranks, and there are only three locations, on post, that serve alcohol to be consumed on the premises. There are now 11 chapels on Fort Bragg, including a large new “All American Memorial Chapel” in the 82nd Airborne Division area. That makes two in the division area.
The Army has matured from a culture of hard drinking, hard fighting, rough and tumble soldiers to one of dedicated and educated professionals willingly serving their country. Most are married, and the families are included, as part of the “Army Family”. Every company now has a “Family Readiness Group” composed of the spouses of the soldiers. They are funded and supported by the Army, they have monthly meetings and they are kept informed about what their soldier is doing on deployments, and what is in the future. They are great help to each other. There are now hundreds of dual military married couples. The Army has a formal “Married Army Couple Program”. The couple has to register in the program, then every effort is made to assign the couple to the same post or overseas location. Many couples have children and raise families while both are on active duty. It is rare that a married couple is separated. Basic training is tougher and more professional now than when I entered the Army, and it is tougher and more professional than it was when I was a Drill Sergeant 36 years ago. All training is professional and realistic.
In February 2012, the 4th Brigade Combat Team of the 82nd Airborne Division deployed to Kandahar Province, which includes the Arghandab River in Afghanistan. It was a large Taliban stronghold. From March to the end of July that brigade saw some of the most intense combat since the initial deployments in 2001. Performing with, what some have called, an almost perfect strategic plan they drove the Taliban out of the area. There were some casualties. Lieutenant Colonel (Chaplain) Jeffrey Watters was the Division Chaplain for the 82nd Airborne Division. He wrote the following article for the summer 2012 edition of the Paraglide Magazine;
“Much has been written about today’s youth – the generation which has grown up with computers, video games, and social media. What brought them into the Army differs widely from person to person. Some joined for college tuition, some for belief in something greater than themselves, some because of a military heritage, but they all have one thing in common. When they joined, they did so during a time of military conflict, knowing that they would deploy overseas and participate in the War on Terror. Coming from the generation often characterized by their elders as being weak, undisciplined couch potatoes, those who joined belied that claim and were transformed from civilians to soldiers, a claim only one percent of the American population can make. The remaining 99% go about their daily life giving little or no thought about what is occurring in the Arghandab River Valley of southern Afghanistan. But those one percent, they are the true American treasures. No matter where I travel in Afghanistan, what I see are exceptional Soldiers. They come from all walks of life and from every corner of America. They have been forged into a team, vetted in the crucible of suffering and sacrifice that only Soldiers can understand. In some sense, they have become what others of their generation can only view in a movie or play in a video game. They have become warriors, transitioned from isolated individuals to members of a close knit band with a mission greater than themselves. They keep faith with their fellow Soldiers who are on their left and right. They are unsurpassed in every way.
The United States of America is the greatest force for freedom and security that the world has ever known, and in no small measure, that’s because of the American Soldiers’ commitment to make sure the mission succeeds, no matter the cost. I see it in their sun-baked faces, in their somewhat tattered bleached uniforms, but more importantly, I see it in their eyes. It takes fortitude, courage, and a solemn resolve to continue the mission, knowing that they may meet their untimely fate. Yet they push on. Because of honor, because of courage, because of the sacred trust that they hold with one another – not to let a buddy down.
As I participate in a Memorial Service, a Dignified Transfer or a Purple Heart Ceremony, I see extraordinary sacrifice. For every fallen and wounded warrior, we grieve. The sorrow is profound, the pain intense, yet our Soldiers continue on. The memory of those sacrifices goes with us, a constant reminder to honor their lives by committing to lead from the front, to share successes and setbacks, to share danger, to share sorrow and joy … tragedy and triumph. Yes, I see it daily – young Troopers displaying courage, fortitude, bravery, heroism, sacrifice. This is our 82nd heritage, handed down to us from the generations before. A heritage, upheld with respect and pride.”

GREEN TO GOLD

This was originally published March 29th, 2017 in the Belle Banner, in Belle, Missouri

This week we are revisiting Jane Doe. When we left her she had been in the army about a year, she was a PFC (Private First Class), Human Resource Specialist, working in the S1 section of a Brigade Headquarters in the 82nd Airborne Division. Jane had completed one semester of college, ran out of money, and joined the Army primarily for the GI Bill benefit. When we left her she had settled into her job and was planning to start taking evening college classes and classes online.
Now it is another year, Jane is Specialist Jane Doe and she has discovered something. She likes the Army. She likes the security, and she likes the not worrying about making a living, and she likes what she does in the Army, but she is not complacent, she wants more. Jane’s take home pay is now a little over $900.00 twice a month ($1,800 per month). Jane is a smart person and she knows that she can perform at a much higher level than where she is now. Being a Human Resource Specialist, (they used to be called personnel clerks), it is Jane’s job to know the system, and about the time we left Jane, she discovered an army secret. It is not really a secret, but it is not advertised outside the Army. She discovered the “Green to Gold” program. The Green to Gold program has three ways to apply, but basically it is a program where a young soldier has accumulated enough semester hours that they can complete a bachelor’s degree in 4 semesters (21 months), they apply for the program and if accepted they are released from active duty to complete their bachelor’s degree, take ROTC, get commissioned and return to active duty as an officer.
For the past year, Jane has been taking two 3 semester hour evening classes each week with Campbell University’s eight week semesters on Fort Bragg. She had to miss one semester because of a long field exercise, but she completed 24 semester hours, in class and 6 hours online, and CLEP tested (College Level Examination Program) for another 3 hours. With her one semester of college before enlisting, she now has a total of 45 semester hours. Her goal is to have 75 semester hours when she reaches three years in service. She has studied the three ways to apply for the Green to Gold program. First, she has to be accepted by the college, and the ROTC department at the college. The first way would be to apply for an ROTC scholarship, if approved, she would be released from active duty, the scholarship would pay tuition and fees, and she would receive her GI bill benefits and the monthly ROTC payment. The second option is to apply for the non-scholarship green to gold program, which means she would be released from active duty, and would use her GI bill to attend school. She would also receive the ROTC payment. But Jane is going to apply for the “active duty option” of the Green to Gold program. Under the active duty option she would be released (or assigned) to go to college, but she would still be on active duty, drawing full pay and allowances, which for her would mean losing $150 per month jump pay, but gaining about $1,000 per month basic allowance for housing, and $368 per month for meals. So she would be taking home about $3,000 per month from the Army, and the GI Bill would pay her tuition at the school. With that option, she would still be on active duty, so if she had any health problems, or pay issues she could go to the nearest Army post, which would be her support post, for help. Plus when she goes over three years in service she will be qualified for the full Post 911 GI Bill, which would pay for her full tuition and fees. She wouldn’t receive the housing allowance from VA because she would be drawing that from the Army.
Specialist Jane Doe also knows that the active duty option is very competitive. A soldier has to prove that they are officer material. She has been preparing herself throughout the year. Her college GPA is 3.8 and she intends to keep it there or higher, and she had an ACT score of 25 in high school, which still counts. So academically she thinks she will be OK. The Army now puts great value on physical fitness and marksmanship. She has been doing extra pushups and situps for the past year, she is now at 36 pushups in 2 minutes and 72 situps in 2 minutes, and she can run 2 miles in less than 15 minutes, which gives her a score of 280 of a possible 300 on the PT test. Every time a company in the Brigade goes for weapons qualification, she asks to go with them. She has fired on the record range six times in the past year and the last time she hit 40 of 40 targets. She is preparing to compete for Brigade Soldier of the quarter. In that competition she will have a PT test, fire on the range, ruck march, and demonstrate various soldier skills, then appear before a formal board in the Brigade Support Battalion, if she wins there she would compete against other battalion soldiers of the quarter at the Brigade board. Having been a soldier of the quarter will be an asset to her Green to Gold application.
Specialist Jane Doe demonstrates officer qualities, she is smart, articulate, courteous, and she is neat and has good posture (military bearing). She is cheerful and always volunteers to help with anything extra. She has become an asset to her bosses, and is known to the Colonel (Brigade Commander), and the Command Sergeant Major as one who can be counted on to participate in anything extra. She has become an avid handball player and one day a week, at lunch time, she plays handball with her boss, the new Brigade S1, Major Elizabeth Brown. For those who don’t know, that is American handball, not team handball. It is played in a racquetball court, 40’ x 20’ with 20’ walls and a ceiling (a box). It is a small hard rubber ball and players wear a small, snug fitting glove. The server bounces the ball off the end wall and the receiver tries to return it before it crosses the center line. It is fast, intense and exhausting. A 30 minute game usually leaves players worn out and drenched in sweat. She is also accomplishing some politicking with the first field grade officer in her chain of command.
Specialist Jane Doe has a goal, and that is to be commissioned in the Adjutant General’s Corps, then stay in the Army as an officer.

SIMULTANEOUS MEMBERSHIP PROGRAM (SMP)

This was originally published March 22nd, 2017 in The Belle Banner in Belle, Missouri. It was written to the local audience, but the program is nationwide. This is how an intelligent young person with zero resources can get a great jump start on life.

Last week I talked about Army Scholarships, this week the same theme but maybe even better.
If you graduate from high school and want to go to college, but don’t have the money, don’t think you can come up with enough scholarships, and don’t want to go way, way in debt to pay for it, here’s how, if you don’t mind joining the US Army Reserves or the Missouri Army National Guard. When you graduate from college, you are commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the Army, and you spend six years as an officer in the guard or three years active regular army then five years guard/reserve.
It is called the Simultaneous Membership Program, or SMP. You are in the US Army Reserves or the Missouri National Guard and in Army ROTC at college. You can do it in the Army Reserves, but the Missouri Guard doubles the tuition assistance. First you talk an Army recruiter or to an Army or a Missouri Army National Guard (MOANG) recruiter. You tell him or her that you want to get into the simultaneous membership program. The recruiter will probably send you to a unit commander, because in the guard and the reserve you enlist for a specific job in a unit, plus the commander has to accept you in the SMP program. You should also talk to the ROTC department at the college you want to attend. At MS&T you should talk to Mr. Chad Pense, who is also Lieutenant Colonel Pense in the US Army Reserves. He is the Assistant Professor of Military Science and the point of contact for SMP and scholarship candidates. He is at 573-341-6808, pensec@mst.edu. There is still a “split option” program where you can go to basic training between your junior and senior years of high school, then attend AIT (Advanced Individual Training), i.e., MOS (Military Occupational Specialty, i.e.,job) training after graduating. I do not recommend that. Many say they get out of shape and forget things between basic and AIT. I recommend graduating from high school then attending basic and AIT. That is no different than enlisting in the regular army. ASVAB tests, physicals, physical assessment, background checks and MEPS (Military Enlistment Processing Station). Except in this case, after AIT you get to come home take off the uniform and start school, which would probably be the spring semester instead of the fall semester. You will attend MOANG/Reserve drill one weekend per month. Drill pay for a Private E1 is $208.00 per month. The Federal tuition assistance and the MOANG tuition assistance will pay your full tuition and fees. Plus, having completed basic and AIT qualifies you for the Montgomery GI bill (MGIB), which pays $356.00 per month to a full time student.
The actual SMP program starts when you are an academic sophomore and have only three years left to graduate. At that time you sign an ROTC contract. Up until that time your guard/reserve duties took priority, at that point ROTC takes priority over your unit, and when you drill with your unit, you will drill as an officer trainee, and you will be paid at the rate of a Sergeant E5 at $297.00 per month, and you are non-deployable. Plus ROTC pays you $350.00 per month your sophomore year, $450.00 to juniors, and $500.00 to seniors. Plus if you were able to enlist for a critical MOS (job) and scored high enough on the ASVAB, which qualified you for a “GI Bill kicker” (ask the MOANG/Army recruiter and unit commander), you get another $350.00 per month. If you’ve been counting that’s $1,353.00 per month you are collecting, plus your tuition and fees are paid.
If you score high enough on the ASVAB, and are able to contract for a specialty that qualifies for the “GI Bill kicker”, it is worth $350 per month. However, what skill you learn is only of value to your unit that first year, because when you contract with ROTC, as an SMP student you become an officer trainee, which usually means you will be paired with a lieutenant during drills. Basic training would probably be at Fort Leonard Wood, which would be 10 weeks. AIT length varies with the job skill. Combat Engineers, MOS 12B, and Bridge Crewmembers, MOS 12C are 15 weeks in one company at Fort Leonard Wood. Those are OSUT (One Station Unit Training) companies. Military Police, MOS 31B is 21 weeks in an OSUT company at Fort Leonard Wood. Other AIT’s at Fort Leonard Wood are; Horizontal Construction Engineer, MOS 12N, 9 weeks, Interior Electrician, MOS 12R 6 weeks, Technical Engineering Specialist, MOS 12T 15 weeks, Geospatial Engineering, MOS 12Y 18 weeks, Corrections Specialist, MOS 31E 8 weeks, Chemical Operations Specialist, MOS 74D 10 weeks, Motor Transport Operator (truck driver), MOS 88M 7 weeks, and Construction Equipment Repairer, MOS 91L 8 weeks. Other AIT’s are at different posts around the country. Basic and AIT would keep you in training around four to six months, and you would be taking home around $1,200 per month, while in training.
Fort Leonard Wood is the Army’s Maneuver Support Center. It is the center and school for Corps of Engineers, Chemical Corps, and Military Police. If you are in any of those three branches, enlisted or officer, your initial schooling and subsequent advanced schooling is at Fort Leonard Wood. If you get any of those three fields, your basic and AIT will be at Fort Leonard Wood, plus when you are commissioned upon graduating from college and ROTC your Basic Officer Leadership Course will be at Fort Leonard Wood. Officers are promoted to Captain at about four years time in service. New Captains are reassigned to their school for a six months Captains Career Course. For the above branches, that is Fort Leonard Wood.
MOANG/Reserve units are all over the state, there are some units in Jefferson City, a couple small detachments in Rolla, and some at Fort Leonard Wood. If you were lucky enough to get a position in one of those locations, travel to monthly weekend drill would be fairly short. Plus you would probably attend two week summer training before you contract with ROTC. Many MOANG/Reserve units are as professional regular army units. MOANG/Reserve units have deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan and performed alongside regular army units. The former weatherman at KRCG Channel 13, Mike Roberts, spent a year as a combat engineer platoon leader, with the Missouri Army National Guard, clearing IED’s in Iraq. He is now Major Mike Roberts, an administrative officer with the guard.
However, you are not married to the National Guard, when you graduate from college. When you are commissioned a Second Lieutenant, you may request that you stay with the guard or you may go on active duty with the regular army, or go to the US Army Reserves. You are a commissioned officer available to the United States Army.

ARMY SCHOLARSHIPS

This was originally published in The Belle Banner, Belle, Missouri, March 15th 2017. The dates for the scholarship application window may have changed by a day or two, but everything else is still current.  Pay has increased.

HIGH SCHOOL RISING SENIORS, scholarship application time starts in June after your junior year. The window for applying for an Army Four Year ROTC Scholarship is June 12th to January 10th of your senior year. The earlier you apply, the better your chance of being offered a scholarship. ROTC is Reserve Officer Training Corps. An Army Four Year Scholarship pays; full tuition and fees, plus $1,200 per year for books, plus a monthly payment for the 10 months of the school year of, $300 for freshmen, $350 for sophomores, $450 for juniors, and $500 for seniors. The payback is eight years in the National Guard or Reserves, or four years active duty, and four years inactive reserve. The requirements are; Be a United States Citizen, Be between the ages of 17 and 26, Have a high school diploma, (you can still start applying at the start of your senior year). Have a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher (it needs to be in the neighborhood of 3.5), score at least a 19 on the ACT, but you’re not really competitive until you score in the neighborhood of 24, Be medically qualified through DODMERB (Department of Defense Medical Examination Review Board) (i.e., your physical exam and medical history is accepted by the Department of Defense), and be able to pass the Army Physical Fitness Test. The Army wants a scholar, an athlete, and a leader. Your GPA should be above a 3.0, 3.5 is better, and you should be in the top 20 % of your class, top 10% is better, score a 24 or higher on the ACT. You should have “lettered” in a sport, individual or team competition. You should have held a leadership position, i.e., elected class officer, FFA officer, FBLA officer, or some activity in which you were in a leadership position. Letters of recommendation from teachers, your preacher, and nonrelated members of the community attesting to your character your attitude, and leadership ability all help.
You can start the application online, however if you are serious, I recommend that you first visit the Army ROTC department at the school you want to attend. Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), at Rolla, has an outstanding Army ROTC program, and it has degree programs other than engineering. MS&T has a top business program, plus English, Biology, Chemistry, Psychology, and History.
The Army is not as concerned with what degree you have, but that you have a bachelor’s degree. Some branches are degree specific, such as Medical Corps, Nurse Corps, Veterinary Corps, and Chaplains Corps. The Corps of Engineers likes engineers, Civil Engineers in the Army move beyond combat engineers to districts supervising the nation’s waterways. I have seen many Mechanical Engineers serve successfully in combat engineers. Some have served a full career and retired as Lieutenant Colonels and full Colonels. The Infantry actually likes history majors, especially military history. MS&T, in my opinion, is one of the top schools in the country for studying military history. Dr. John C. McManus, at MS&T, is an internationally recognized expert in U.S. military history. He has been designated a “Curators Professor”, which is the highest, and most prestigious rank awarded to a professor, by the University of Missouri, Board of Curators. His class sizes in military history and political science max out at about 19 – 20 students per class. In past years, during the summer months, he has taken students to different battle fields, all over the world. He has researched and written 12 books on military history.
ROTC is another college class, it is a four year program, and it is two parts, the basic course, which is the first two years and the advanced course in the last two years. Non-scholarship students may take every class in the first two years without any commitment to the Army. All taking the advanced course contract with the Army prior to starting their junior year. Scholarship students contract with the Army when they accept the scholarship. Four year scholarships are offered to high school students. Three year and two year scholarships are offered to those already in college. ROTC classes are an exciting break from other college classes. During the basic first two years you become acquainted with the Army, you learn not only the basics of military courtesy and drill but you will have some fun adventures like rappelling and rifle marksmanship. The ROTC student becomes part of a close knit campus organization, which is not associated with any academic discipline, but can help academically, if necessary. My last job in the Army was NCOIC (Noncommissioned Officer in Charge) of the Army ROTC Department at MS&T (then UMR). I was once tasked with writing a study guide, for the ROTC students, on “How to Study”. Advanced ROTC students study leadership in more depth, plus they serve in leadership positions in the ROTC Cadet Battalion and they attend a four week leadership camp between their junior and senior years. When the ROTC student receives a bachelor’s degree, and has completed the ROTC program, he or she is commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the Army.
Second Lieutenants are promoted to First Lieutenant at 18 months time in service, and they are promoted to Captain at about four years in service. Industry seeks out former army officers. Those who have been in combat arms or combat support units have “people leading” experience, plus the experience of managing large volumes of equipment and material. In Infantry, Armor, Artillery, Combat Engineers, Air Defense Artillery, Transportation, and Quartermaster a normal tour for an officer would start as a Platoon Leader of a 30 to 40 person platoon for probably six to nine months. Then if he or she is performing well, he may be moved to a more advanced (complicated) platoon for another six to nine months. By that time the officer is a First Lieutenant and may move to a staff job at battalion level, or may become a Company Executive Officer (XO) for about a year or more. There is one XO in each company, and he or she is directly responsible for all administration, logistics and maintenance in the company, plus the XO commands the company, if the commander is not present. Some very good officers actually get to command company’s before they make captain. Companies vary in size from around 130 people to around 250.
The combat maneuver officer branches in the Army are; Infantry, Armor, and Aviation, combat fires branches are Artillery and Air Defense Artillery, maneuver support branches are Combat Engineers, Chemical Corps, and Military Police Corps, special operations branches are Special Forces, Psychological Operations, and Civil Affairs Corps, operations support branches are Signal Corps, Cyber Corps (new) and Military Intelligence Corps, force sustainment branches are Transportation Corps, Ordnance Corps, Quartermaster Corps, Adjutant General’s Corps (Human Resources), Finance Corps, Medical Corps (Doctors), Army Nurse Corps, Dental Corps, Veterinary Corps, Medical Service Corps, Army Medical Specialist Corps, Chaplains Corps, and Judge Advocate Generals Corps (Lawyers).
The Army lives by seven core values, Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity, and Personal Courage. Officers live by those values and enforce them. I saw a captain company commander relieved (fired) because he didn’t tell his boss (battalion commander) the whole truth about why a sergeant was removed from contact with ROTC cadets, in basic camp. When the colonel discovered the facts, the captain was fired. I heard the guest speaker at an Engineer Basic Officer Leaders class give four thoughts of advice, to the new lieutenants. First, when in charge, take charge, don’t abdicate you’re responsibility. Second, make it happen, if a job or mission appears too difficult, figure out how to get it done. Third, do the right thing, you wear the uniform, the Army values are your values, and finally, have fun, have some recreation away from the job, for you to relax and recharge.
If an officer stays on active duty past his or her initial commitment, at about four years service, they are reassigned back to their branch school for the Captains Career Course. The course is about six months long, and teaches how to be a company commander, and how to work as a staff officer. Then the captain has about six years before being considered for promotion to major, that usually means two assignments, one in a unit commanding a company and working on staff, and another such as ROTC duty, a special assignment, or going to grad school. The Army encourages captains to get a masters degree. Sometimes the Army gives the captain the time to go to grad school, and sometimes the Army will send captains to grad school. An Army Captain, over four, makes about $100,000 a year. Monthly pay is; $5,398.20 base pay, $253.63 for meals (nontaxable), and an average of about $1,400 per month Basic Allowance for Housing (BAH) (nontaxable). That is about $85,000 per year, plus completely free, zero-deductible medical care for the captain and family, plus the nontaxable benefit, a civilian would have to be approaching six figures to equal a captains pay.
Whether an officer goes on active duty or to the National Guard or Reserves, almost every field of industry looks at that individual as having had training and experience beyond that of his or her peers.

THE FLAG

Originally Published in The Belle Banner, in Belle, Missouri, September 27th, 2017. This is another article out of the sequence in which they were published, but with the apparent decision by the NFL to ban kneeling during the National Anthem, I feel compelled to post this now.
I graduated from Belle High School in May 1961. We spent eight years down stairs in grade school. In many classes, we said the Pledge of Allegiance. “I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the republic for which it stands, one nation under god, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all”. When we moved upstairs to high school, we were joined by others who came in from the one room country schools. That summer I pumped gas in a service station, for Arlie Roesner. There was talk of war that summer. That was the Berlin Crises. The Soviet Union sealed off East Berlin and started building the Berlin Wall. American and Russian tanks faced each other, as the wall was being constructed. President Kennedy, on national television, said; “We seek peace, but we will not surrender”. He called for tripling the draft, increasing the size of the armed services, and possibly calling up the reserves. At the end of August, I enlisted in the Army, for Airborne Infantry. As a fairly immature 18 year old, I didn’t fully understand the tear in my Dad’s eye, as he shook my hand before I left to get on the bus, in Belle. Thirty years later, when we put our son on the bus, in Rolla, for the same trip, I did fully understand.
After training I was assigned to the 82nd Airborne Division, my Dad’s old unit. My Platoon Sergeant, when I arrived at my company, was Staff Sergeant William Maud Bryant. Sergeant Bryant was a very smart, articulate man. After a few months, he went to Special Forces, and as a Green Beret was killed in action in Vietnam, and subsequently awarded the Medal of Honor. The Squad Leader of our Weapons Squad, in which I was a Machinegunner, was Staff Sergeant Tom Walker. The other Machinegunner, in the squad was named Jordan. Staff Sergeant Tom Walker taught us the machinegun so well that we won Division Machinegun Competition in the spring of 1963. Tom Walker was also killed in action in Vietnam. All three were black men, good men. My black friends, in North Carolina, first introduced me to “Splo”. Its’ popular name is “white lightning”, but whatever it’s called you never forget it.
I saw combat in Dominican Republic and in Vietnam. The Army was fully integrated, there was no “race problem” in combat units, we were all green and we all bled red. We depended on each other, and we became close to each other. What else I saw in different countries around the world were the some of the greatest ambassadors for the United States of America. Soldiers would stand down from a firefight and share their rations with hungry kids, they would pick up old women and kids and carry them out of the line of fire. Young children would literally try to sell cokes while under fire. I saw that people are pretty much the same all over the world. They want to protect and provide for their family, and they want to see their children grow up and be happy. I saw the United States as the worlds’ protector of individual freedom and liberty. I became acquainted with many Vietnamese. I knew Catholics whose families had been fighting the Communists for years, but the United States, at that time, had an administration that had no experience with war and did not understand it. The President, the Secretary of Defense, and their council decided in December 1965 that they could not win in Vietnam, but continued the war for another 10 years. The public turned so sour that we couldn’t wear our uniform among civilians, but soldiers only go where they are told to go and do what they are told to do. When congress finally folded, defunded the war, and we left, it has been estimated that about two million people were literally dragged out of their houses and killed, when the Communists took over. I knew many of them, and my memory of them suffering that fate will never fade, but Presidents change, administrations change, congressmen change, and time does heal.
I stood at attention and saluted the flag and the national anthem for over 20 years, then the Defense Authorization Act of 2008 authorized all veterans to render the hand salute to the flag, and that act in 2009 authorized all veterans to render the hand salute to the national anthem, so I again stand at attention and salute the flag and the national anthem. I sometimes get a lump in my throat when old glory flies and the anthem is playing, because to me it represents not only the military, but all the good that the United States of America has done in the world, but I hate Taps. Although Taps is played as the last bugle call of the day at every army post, to me it represents funeral.
In the last decade, US Army Special Forces have deployed to 135 of the 195 recognized countries in the world. Not only training armies and fighting terrorists and drug cartels, but providing medical service in remote areas, building clinics and schools, and protecting the local people. The United States of America is doing more good in the world, than the rest of the world combined.
If professional football players are trying to bring attention to a wrong being perpetrated against black people, they are going about it all wrong. When they disrespect our flag and our anthem, I don’t care what they are protesting, because I am blinded by their heinous, violent act of disrespect.
Colin Kaepernick said; “I am not going to stand up to show pride in a flag for a country that oppresses black people and people of color.” The complaint is that white police are harassing and killing black people and that white supremacist neo nazi organizations are not being punished. Even if that is true, which I don’t believe, you get no sympathy from me when you disrespect my flag and anthem. To me that is worse than rioting where people are hurt. It attacks the very core of my being, I see and hear nothing else. You are disrespecting me, personally.
If someone is being wronged, I will help them anyway I can, but if you perform this hideous act then you become my enemy. I no longer watch NFL football, and if I were an NFL sponsor I would terminate those contracts. This is the most serious attack on this country since 9 – 11. I fear that the result of these “protests” will not be attention to a problem but the beginning of the destruction of our country.

Daniel Kcender II

Originally published March 1st, 2017 in The Belle Banner.

We are with PFC Daniel Kcender for a second week. In May they trained with live fire exercises both in urban and field. Every year the week before Memorial Day is “All American Week”, where the 82nd Airborne Division opens its doors to former paratroopers and visitors and puts on a weeklong show, culminating in either a Division parade or a Division jump. All American Week started with a Division sized four mile run at 06:30 Monday morning, led by the Division Commanding General, and the Division Command Sergeant Major. Longstreet on Fort Bragg had an estimated 10,000 paratroopers running on it at one time. There were people lining the sidewalks on each side of the street, many were the families of paratroopers, and many were veterans, former paratroopers with the 82nd, all cheering the troops. There were many unit competitions scheduled throughout the week, basketball, flag football, softball, volleyball, soccer, combatives, tug-of-war, and more, most starting on Monday. There was also a “Paratrooper Breakfast” in one of the DFAC’s at 08:30 Monday morning, where current troops ate breakfast with former paratroopers. Daniel got to attend the breakfast. Daniel talked to former paratroopers, some had retired from the Army, and some had spent 2 or 3 or 4 years in the 82nd. Some were combat veterans from Vietnam, Iraq and Afghanistan, some were not, but all said that their time in the 82nd was one of the high points in their lives. Some said that at the time they thought it was just a lot of hard work and misery, but looking back they wouldn’t have missed it for the world. Most of the veterans belonged to the 82nd Airborne Division Association. He learned that there are 96 chapters of the 82nd Airborne Division Association scattered across the United States. The Fayetteville Chapter, there at Fort Bragg, hosted many events during All American Week. On Tuesday morning, Daniel got to attend the All American Week Prayer Breakfast. The host and guest speaker was a retired Colonel who was a former Division Chaplain for the 82nd. On Wednesday afternoon there was a very moving memorial service, at the Division Museum, where units honored those they had lost in Iraq and Afghanistan. He was told that in past years they had practiced for a parade on Wednesday and performed on Thursday. This year, the finale for All American Week, on Thursday, was a mass tactical parachute jump, an exercise, then a review on Sicily Drop Zone. Daniel didn’t get to make that jump, he was assigned to guide people around the static displays set up in front of the bleachers on Sicily Drop Zone. There he got to meet many more veterans and their families, who came to visit the Division. The Division Commander designated Friday of that week a “training holiday”, and Monday was Memorial Day, so he got a four day weekend. SSG Wright and his wife hosted the squad and their families to a bar-b-que that Saturday.
Daniel’s company trained on many live fire exercises, they practiced squad and team tactics, they conducted field exercises against aggressors, with graders, where leaders were “killed off” and junior troopers had to step up and take charge. They got at least one parachute jump a month, more if they wanted to go jump on Saturday, in the Saturday Jump Program. They jumped into field exercises, and they just jumped. They worked with helicopters for combat insertions and extractions. In October the Brigade conducted EIB (Expert Infantryman Badge) testing. It encompasses all skills an infantryman should know, it is hands on, intense and tough. It is graded by a GO or NO-GO system. The task is performed correctly or not. It is also voluntary. Daniel competed alongside sergeants and officers, and he started realizing that the skills being tested were what SSG Wright had been having them practice repeatedly for the past year. Daniel was one of the few PFC’s awarded the EIB.
Now it is the 1st of December again and Daniel has just been promoted to Specialist E4. He was also designated an Automatic Rifleman, trading in his M4 Carbine for an M249B SAW (Squad Automatic Weapon). After the promotion ceremony, Captain Good, the Company Commander, called Daniel to his office. He asked Daniel to sit down and tell him how he felt about the army. Daniel told him that he enjoyed what he was doing, and thought the Army was great, but at this point he didn’t know whether he would stay in, or get out and go to college. Captain Good asked him what his score was on his ACT, and where he stood in his high school class. He then asked Daniel how he would like to go to the US Military Academy at West Point. Daniel said he didn’t understand. Captain Good, who was a USMA graduate himself, told Daniel that the Army has a program where they admit young, single, soldiers (USMA students must be single and not have reached their 23rd birthday when they report for their freshman year) either directly to West Point, or to a year of “Prep School” then to West Point. He told Daniel that it is very competitive, and that they have a limited number, but with Daniels grades and scores, and his proven ability and enthusiasm as a soldier, he felt that Daniel would be an excellent candidate for at least prep school. Specialist Daniel Kcender had to do some serious thinking.
Daniel liked the Army, and he had seen enough of it to know that the 82nd Airborne Division is an elite organization within the Army. If he applied for the US Military Academy and was accepted, that would be four years, granted it would be a top notch education. If he was accepted for Prep School, then it would be five years. Daniel had another problem, he had a girlfriend. They communicated regularly and they had visited each other a few times, since he had been in the Army. Daniel wanted to talk with someone. SFC Steady was now First Sergeant (1SG) Steady in another battalion, and SSG Wright was now SFC Wright and his Platoon Sergeant. Daniel’s Squad Leader was now SSG Smith who just made E6 and moved from another platoon. Daniel asked SFC Wright if it was OK for him to go talk to 1SG Steady. SFC Wright immediately called 1SG Steady and handed the phone to Daniel. Daniel told 1SG Steady what Captain Good had said, and that he needed to talk with someone. 1SG Steady told Daniel; “After you get off work, get some chow, change clothes and come out to my house about 19:00 (7:00 PM)”. Daniel knew where 1SG Steady lived, he owned a house off post with a big back yard where they had a platoon cook out last summer. After Daniel arrived and spoke to 1SG Steady’s wife and kids, they went to the living room, while the rest of the family was in the den watching TV. Daniel told him what Captain Good had said, also about his girlfriend and his dilemma. 1SG Steady asked Daniel if he considered staying in the Army, whether he went to West Point or not. Daniel said that he was beginning to think that he might stay, and that if he made Sergeant before his enlistment was up he probably would reenlist. Daniel said he wanted to know the difference in life between an officer and an NCO. 1SG Steady told Daniel that first, officers make twice as much money as NCO’s, they are the managers of the Army. They command platoons, companys, battalions, and brigades. They have a lot more responsibility, and they have a lot more stress. The crunch point for an officer comes when captains are being considered for major. There are twice as many captains as there are majors, so some captains are not selected for promotion, and if they are passed over twice they are released, i.e., kicked out. After an enlisted soldier makes Staff Sergeant, he can screw up and never get promoted again, but if he hasn’t done anything very bad, he can still retire at 20 years. Officers move often, they are purposely moved about every three years so they get the necessary schools and variety of assignments to provide them the experience to advance. 1SG Steady said that he had been in the Army about 15 years, and other than some trips to schools at Fort Benning, Georgia, he had only one three year tour away from the 82nd, and that was with the 173rd Airborne Brigade in Italy. He told Daniel that West Point is one of the finest schools in the country. West Point graduates have become Generals, Presidents, and captains of industry. As far as a girlfriend is concerned, all USMA cadets are single, in fact there is a tradition that upper classmen tell the freshmen to drop their girlfriend or boyfriend because they are a distraction. Daniel said that he didn’t want to lose his girlfriend, he said that they are not formally engaged, but just assumed that they would be someday. 1SG Steady told Daniel that if he decided not to apply for West Point he should get busy with what needed to be done to make Sergeant. He told Daniel that life changes after you make Sergeant. When you call battalion headquarters and Sergeant Smith answers the phone, you don’t know whether that is Sergeant E5 Smith or SFC E7 Smith, because all are called Sergeant. He told Daniel that his life as a soldier would also change if he got married. He would move out of the barracks to an apartment or house off or on post. He said that the Army is a separate and protected society, and if he got married his wife would become part of that society, but she should understand that like it or not, the Army comes first. He said; “My wife tells me that she is my mistress because I am married to the Army.” 1SG Steady recommended first getting a house on post. He told Daniel that if he liked the Army and is a good soldier, it can be a very rewarding career. He told Daniel that it took him 10 years to get his bachelor’s degree and that he was now working on a masters. He said, we don’t worry about medical insurance or making a living, we concentrate on doing our job.
Daniel thanked 1SG Steady and drove back to his barracks. When he got to his room, he got on his computer and went to work on his SSD-1 (Structured Self Development Course). The next day, Daniel told Captain Good that he had given serious thought to applying for the USMA, but instead he wanted to apply for Ranger School. Captain Good told Daniel that he would put him on the list to attend the Division Pre Ranger Course.

JANE DOE ENLISTED TO BE A HUMAN RESOURCE SPECIALIST

Originally published January 25th, 2017 in The Belle Banner.

PFC Jane Doe has been in the Army about a year. She completed one semester of college, ran out of money and went to an Army recruiter. She was interested in the GI Bill and what kind of job she could get in the army. The recruiter told her that she would be in the “Post 911 GI Bill”. After three years in the army, the VA will pay full tuition and fees to an in-state public college, university or trade school, plus a sizable monthly housing allowance, and up to $1,000 a year for books. In other words a full ride. As far as a job in the Army, she would have to take the ASVAB (Armed Service Vocational Aptitude Battery) test, a physical fitness test, and a medical exam. Plus a background check to make sure she had nothing derogatory in her background. Then, based upon her scores, she could choose from the jobs available, at that time. The recruiter was a former paratrooper and told her that she could also request an “airborne option” along with most jobs (jobs are MOS’s (military occupational specialties) in the army). He told her that paratroopers on jump status receive an extra $150 per month, and that the school is only three weeks long. She choose MOS 42A Human Resource Specialist with the airborne option. Her recruiter cautioned her to reveal absolutely everything she may have done wrong in her life, because MOS 42A requires a SECRET security clearance, and in that investigation all records are available to the Army, including juvenile. Her recruiter helped her set up her Army Knowledge Online (AKO) account, where she could monitor her records and request assignments. She went to the MEPS (Military Enlistment Processing Station) in St Louis, where she took the ASVAB for record, got a physical exam (she had been told to remind them that she was going Airborne, because it required a different exam), and talked to a counselor, who tried to persuade her to take a different job, but she insisted that she wanted 42A. She then signed her contract, stood with several others and took the oath of enlistment. At that point she was in the Army.

Her group was bused to the USO office at the airport, where they met other enlistees who had arrived by plane. They were loaded on a bus and transported to the US Army Reception Battalion at Fort Leonard Wood. The time at the Reception Battalion can be anywhere from four days to a week and a half, until they have enough people to fill a basic training company. They were met by drill sergeants, who didn’t yell, but briefed them about what they would do, while at the Reception Battalion. They ate dinner, then were issued the Army PT uniform, which they would wear the next day. Their cell phones were collected, to be returned at graduation from basic training. They separated men and women, then were moved to a barracks and assigned a bunk and wall locker (need lock). They finally got to sleep after midnight. They were rudely awakened at 4:30 AM and told they had 30 minutes to take care of their personal hygiene then clean their living area and the latrine (bathroom), and be outside in formation for breakfast. They were briefed by various people, then the men all got their hair cut off, the women had the option of having it cut to collar length or keeping it up (like a bun) above the collar. They were issued an “EZ pay card” (with $350.00 on it) to purchase necessary items. That money would come out of their first pay. They had blood drawn, got shots and had ID card photos taken. They were marched to the PX and told what to buy. Didn’t make any difference if they had brought the item with them. They were then issued uniforms and boots. The second day was eye, ear, and dental exams, and personnel affairs processing. She had to have her bank routing number and her checking account number. The military only pays by direct deposit. The third day were more shots, photos, ear plug brief, TRICARE brief, and Red Cross brief. The time at the reception station was extremely stressful, many had trouble adjusting to the regimentation. They were lucky, they shipped to their basic training company on day four.

At the basic training company, the drill sergeants did yell, a lot, and in their face. They were separated into four platoons of about 50 people each, assigned to barracks and bunks and wall lockers, where they would live for the next nine weeks. They were marched to pay phones and told to call home and give their family their address. Everyone was assigned a “battle buddy”. Some felt like they had made a mistake, and that they had arrived in hell. Basic training is in three phases – red, white and blue. Red phase (the first three weeks) was total control. Drill Sergeants maintained strict control at all times. In red phase they learned how to stand, march, salute, etc. They had PT every morning, Monday through Saturday, they had classes on army values, life in the army, first aid, hand to hand combat, and land navigation. They spent half a day on warrior tower and they went through the gas chamber. They received their first class on the M16A2/M4 rifle. It was around week three that most began to realize that the drill sergeants really did have serious concern for their training and their wellbeing. They found that the quicker they mastered a task, the happier the drill sergeants became. It was also around that time that they began to “jell” as a platoon, they became a unit, looking out for each other. They started having fun. They also got to use the pay phone on Sunday night. In white phase, weeks four thru six, they mastered their rifle. They learned disassembly, assembly and cleaning of the rifle. They fired on various ranges, and finally fired for record. They were told by some of the drill sergeants that a high weapons qualification score and a high PT score were two of the biggest things to bring out of basic. The drill sergeants became human, not buddies, but more approachable. The drill sergeants were beyond teaching them how to act, they were now teaching skills. They threw live hand grenades, went through the obstacle course, fired grenade launchers, pugil stick fighting classes, as well as ground fighting techniques. In blue phase, week seven and eight were more firing. Night firing, moving targets, close combat firing, convoy operations, moving under fire, rappelling, rules of engagement, and squad tactical training. Finally, week nine. The End of Course Test, takes all day. It is hands on performing all the things taught in basic. Then cleaning and turn in of field equipment, dress uniform inspection and practice for graduation. The day before graduation was “family day”. After the soldiers and the families were briefed on what they could and could not do, they got to spend the entire day with their family. On Thursday morning, Graduation! Graduation was a time of mixed emotions. There was elation at finishing basic, then there was the sadness of separating with some really good friends that she acquired over the past nine weeks. Many spent time thanking their drill sergeants for bringing them through basic training. They would never forget those drill sergeants.

After graduation, Jane and some others were given bus tickets to the St Louis airport, and plane tickets to Columbia, South Carolina – Fort Jackson, for Advanced Individual Training (AIT) in MOS 42A Human Resource Specialist.

The military liaison office at the Columbia airport put them on the proper bus which delivered them to their company on Fort Jackson. The barracks in some companies slept four to six people to a room, with a communal bath. Jane was lucky, in that in her company there were three people to a room, with its own bath. They got to keep their cell phones, ipads, laptops, etc, they just couldn’t use them during duty hours. Their day started with a 5:00 AM (05:00) wake up, clean barracks, PT formation at 06:30. PT lasts until about 07:30, then it is breakfast, personal hygiene, and be in formation at 08:45, to be marched to class. An hour for lunch, the DFAC (Dining Facility) was close, back to class, then march back to the barracks and released at 17:00 (5:00 PM). They could wear civilian clothes when off duty. After getting settled, Jane went to the ASK key (Assignment Satisfaction Key) on her AKO account, and saw that she was tentatively scheduled for assignment to the 82nd Airborne Division. During the first half of the course, they were free to go anywhere on post evenings and weekends. During the last half, they could also get off posts passes. During the eight weeks and two days of the course, six weeks were spent in class and two weeks in the field. They studied; Researching Human Resource Publications; Prepare Office Documents Using Office Software; Prepare Correspondence, Identify Human Resource Systems; Maintain Records; Interpret the Enlisted Record Brief & Officer Record Brief; Create Ad Hoc Query; Perform Forms Content Management Program Functions; Prepare Suspension of Favorable Action; Prepare a request for Soldier Applications; Process a DFR packet; Process Recommendation for Award; Process Personnel Strength Accountability Updates; Perform Unit Strength Reconciliation; Conduct a Personnel Asset Inventory (PAI); Issue a Common Access Card; Maintain Emergency Notification Data; Prepare a Casualty Report; Create a Manifest; Employ the Deployed Theater Accountability Software (DTAS); Prepare strength accounting reports; Process a Request for Leave, Pass, and Permissive TDY; Perform Personnel Office Computations; Review a Completed Non-commissioned Officer Evaluation Report (NCOER); Process Enlisted Advancements for PV1 – SPC; Process Semi-Centralized Promotions; Research Finance Actions; Determine Entitlements to Pay and Allowances; and Employ the Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) System.

After graduation, Jane and a few others who were going airborne were given bus tickets to Columbus, Georgia – Fort Benning. At Columbus they caught the bus to the Airborne School. Monday of the following week training started. The very first period is the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) and the Flexed Arm Hang immediately after the APFT. The Flexed Arm Hang is; Hang on the pull up bar, arms completely straight, palms facing you, pull up until the chin is above the bar, and hold that position for 20 seconds. The purpose is to make sure a person can pull down on the parachute risers with sufficient strength to guide the parachute away from other jumpers or obstacles. Jane did it, plus she weighed 120 lbs, 10 lbs over the minimum for a paratrooper. Intense PT and long runs every training day, Monday through Friday. The first week (ground week) was spent learning parachute landing falls (PLF). They did them on the ground, they did them off 2 foot platforms and 4 foot platforms. Then they did them when being dropped from a swing landing trainer. The second week (tower week) they jumped from a 34 foot tower, in a parachute harness and slid down cables to a mound a couple hundred feet away. Then, the 250 foot towers. They put on a parachute, which is deployed and attached to a metal cage above the jumper pulled up 250 feet, then released. That is to teach jumpers how to maneuver their parachute. And the final week (jump week), they made five parachute jumps including one at night. On Friday or Saturday they graduate and receive their wings, which they wear on all uniforms as long as they are in the Army.

Finally, after almost six months in the Army she was on her way to her first permanent assignment, the 82nd Airborne Division at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. So it was back on a bus to Fayetteville, North Carolina. At the Fayetteville bus station they caught the post bus which dropped them at the 82nd Airborne Division Replacement Detachment. She spent three days there, processing into Fort Bragg, and drawing field gear, then finally, her assignment; Headquarters and Headquarters Company (HHC), of a Brigade Combat Team. She was assigned to the S1 Section of the Headquarters. Staff Sections of army units commanded by colonel’s and below are designated S1 (Human Resources), S2 Intelligence, S3 Operations and Training, and S4 Supply, Logistics, Maintenance, Transportation. The S1 of the Brigade is a Major, and the NCOIC (Non-commissioned Officer in charge) is a Master Sergeant. The S1 shop consists of two teams. The Human Resources Services Team consists of a Chief Warrant Officer, a Staff Sergeant, two Sergeants, and three Specialists. It processes all personnel actions. And, the Personnel Readiness Team, which consists of a Lieutenant, a Staff Sergeant, and two Specialists. They maintain personnel accountability, personnel readiness management, personnel information management, strength reporting, and casualty reporting. Jane was assigned to one of the Specialist positions in the Readiness Team.

She lives in the barracks – they are sometimes referred to as dorms now. She has her own room with a small refrig and a microwave, plus she has her own TV, stereo, and computer, she shares a bathroom with a suite mate (female) on the other side of the bath. Her weekdays start with a formation at 06:30 for PT (Physical Training). PT is about an hour. Most units do actual PT (calisthenics and run) three days a week and athletics or gym two days. After that its shower, dress, breakfast and be at her desk by 9:00 AM. Lunch time is usually noon. Since she lives in the barracks, she has a meal card, which means she eats free in the DFAC (Dining Facility). There are two DFAC’s within 10 minute walking distance. If she doesn’t like what the DFAC’s have, she can jump in her car and run to Burger King or one the other food places on post. She has been in that job about six months. She has just been promoted to Private First Class E-3. Her base pay is $1,885.90 plus $150.00 jump pay, per month. Her take home pay, after taxes and deductions is about $1,600 per month, $800.00 paid twice a month. All military personnel are paid twice monthly by direct deposit, so she opened an account in one of the banks on post, for the convenience. She has made three parachute jumps since she arrived, she must make at least one jump every three months to maintain her jump pay. At 17:00 (5:00 PM) she is off until 6:30 AM the next morning, except Friday, which means she is off until Monday morning. When she arrived at her company, her team sergeant told her about the Fort Bragg BOSS program (Better Opportunities for Single Soldiers). Last summer she went on two day trips to Myrtle Beach with the BOSS people. Cost was $10.00 for the trip down, day at the beach, and trip back. She has been bowling with the BOSS soldiers, and performed some community volunteer work with them. She has a weekend ski trip to Sugar Mountain planned with MWR (Morale Welfare and Recreation). Cost is just over $200, which includes everything, transportation, equipment, instruction, and overnight at the hotel. All details are handled by the MWR people. Being the largest Army post in the US, Fort Bragg also has great facilities. Fort Bragg also has ten Universities and Colleges conducting classes and online courses on post. PFC Jane Doe has already learned that more college hours mean more promotion points, she plans to resume classes in the next semester. She expects to be promoted to Specialist E-4 within the next year.

Next week soldier number two.

LIFE IN THE ARMY

Originally published January 18th, 2017 in The Belle Banner

This is the first in a series of articles about life in the military. I came to realize, after the Veterans Day Assembly, that very few local people know anything about the military.  The younger the person the less he or she is likely know about the military.  So yes I am talking to you high schoolers.  I have talked to 17 year olds who thinks life in the military is like the movie “Lone Survivor”.  Only if you were a SEAL in Afghanistan in 2007, sent on a questionable mission in the middle of Indian country, and everything went wrong.

The Army has Basic Combat Training, the Air Force has Basic Training, and the Navy and Marines each have their own version of Boot Camp.  They all have similarities, and differences, but none is anything like life in that service.  Nor are the movies anything like normal life in the military.  I will be telling about the Army, because that is what I know.  I spent 21 years in the Army, and have kept up with it on a daily basis, since I retired.

The Army and Marines have similar structures.  The Marines do a much better job of instilling pride and esprit de corps in just being a Marine.  Whether you’re a cook, clerk, mechanic or infantryman, a Marine is a Marine.  In the other services pride and  morale are more with specific units than the service as a whole.  In the Air Force the Special Operations Command is the top of the mountain for enlisted people, although very tough to get into.  For officers, if you’re not a pilot, you are a second class officer.  The Air Force supports airplanes, they fly them, maintain them, and support them.  Airplanes are the primary interest of the Air Force. In the Navy, if you can’t be a SEAL, I suspect working on the flight deck of a Ford Class nuclear powered aircraft carrier is about at the top of the heap.   In the Navy, Ships and airplanes are their primary interest.  In the Army and the Marines, people are the primary focus.  Because no matter how advanced technology becomes, to win wars and hold territory, there has to be people on the ground.

In the Army, Special Forces are the top of the elite soldiers, and although the army occasionally allows recruits to enlist directly for Special Forces, I do not recommend it.  The enlistment contract only means you get to try out for Special Forces.  The normal route is to make Sergeant, then apply for Special Forces.  About 27% of those who start the year and a half to two year training actually make it to becoming a Green Beret.  The same goes for ranger school.  If you want to be a ranger, enlist for airborne infantry, spend a few months in a line unit then apply for ranger school.

Normal life in the Army is very different for officers and enlisted personnel.  Normal life between junior enlisted married and single people is very different.  And life is different between various units.  I just said that the Army is a people organization, which boils down to leadership.  Changing commanders from company level to army level is a formal process.  The colors of the unit are passed from the outgoing commander to the incoming commander.  The commander alone, is responsible for everything his unit does or fails to do, so if the commander is a good leader, that is probably a good unit, if not, it is probably not as good as some others just like it.  So, if you want to go into the Army and you want to try to get into as good a unit as possible, what do you do?  The most elite part of the Army, you can simply enlist for, is airborne.  They jump out of air planes.  Don’t panic, it’s a rip.  One of the biggest thrills in life.

In times like these when the military budgets are being cut, and the services drawn down, all units are not fully funded. When a unit is not fully funded, its training is reduced, its services are reduced, and soldiers are used to perform jobs that civilians were previously paid to do.  It affects everyone’s morale, including the commanders.

The most famous unit in the army, or in fact all the military, is the 82nd Airborne Division, and I believe that it has the highest morale.  Pride is a large part of that morale, because the combat units in the 82nd train hard all the time, and the support units run hard to keep them supplied.  It is the most highly trained, well equipped, fully funded division in all the services.  The reason is that part of it is always on standby.  It is America’s fire brigade.  If America needs to put troops anywhere in the world fast, the President calls Fort Bragg.  The division has three Brigade Combat Teams (BCT) each composed of about 4500 paratroopers.  One BCT is always on standby as the Division Ready Brigade (DRB).  Within 18 hours of notification the DRB can be loaded and “wheels up” to any location in the world.  Every member of the division is airborne (parachute) qualified, and every piece of equipment can be dropped by parachute.  The standard mission is to jump into a hostile area, seize and hold an airfield until heavier units can be flown in.  In Iraq and Afghanistan they just went and did what all other units did, only better.

Enlisting in the Army with an “airborne option” guarantees only airborne school (three weeks at Fort Benning, Georgia), but after paying for a soldier to go through the school there is about a 100% probability that they will be assigned to an airborne unit. Those are; 82nd Airborne Division at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, the 173rd Airborne Brigade in Vicenza, Italy.  The 173rd is the US fire brigade for Europe.  My family and I thoroughly enjoyed an assignment there.  The 4th Brigade, 25th Infantry Division at Anchorage, Alaska, and the 1st Battalion 509th Airborne Infantry, Fort Polk, Louisiana.

The Army tries to assign its best officers to those units. Good Sergeants usually stay.  I’ve known dozens of sergeants who spent their entire career in the 82nd Airborne Division, minus some mandatory schools, and perhaps one overseas assignment.  Of the ten current 4 star generals in the Army now, all are airborne qualified, six are master parachutists, having spent multiple assignments in the 82nd, and two of those six are former Division Commanders of the 82nd Airborne Division.

First, the Army works five days a week, Monday thru Friday. Hospitals, Military Police, Communications Centers, and Dining Facilities are some of the exceptions.  The individual soldiers still only work five days a week.  Everyone in the Army, who is not on shift work, does PT (Physical Training), first thing in the morning, usually 6:00 or 6:30 AM.  That is the first, and for many the only formation of the day.  Shift work soldiers still do PT, only at different times.  Single Privates, Specialists, and Sergeants live in the barracks.  Some barracks are now called dorms.  A normal set up for permanently assigned soldiers is a private room with a microwave and small refrigerator.  Some have baths, some share a bath with a suite mate (same sex) on the other side of the bath.  Married soldiers, who have their family with them, may live in family housing on post, which are nice houses or apartments, paid for with their Basic Allowance for Housing (BAH), or they may live off post.  All married soldiers receive BAH, unless the family lives in government housing, so even if their family is not with them, the BAH is paid to provide for their family.  BAH rates vary with rank and location.  At Fort Leonard Wood, a married Private First Class (PFC E-3) (about a year in the army) will receive an extra $903.00 per month, whereas a Staff Sergeant (SSG E-6) (five to ten years in the army) will receive $1,146.00 per month.  At Fort Bragg, North Carolina the rates are $1,179.00 for the PFC and $1,344.00 for the SSG.  PT usually lasts about an hour.  Many units vary regular PT (calisthenics and run) three days per week with athletics or gym two days.  After PT, soldiers living in the barracks go back to their room, clean up, put on their uniform and go to the Dining Facility (DFAC) for breakfast.  Meals in the DFAC are free for soldiers living in the barracks, those soldiers are issued a meal card. Married soldiers not living in the barracks receive an extra $368.00 per month for meals.  Married soldiers go home, clean up and eat breakfast.  Combat line units like Infantry, Armor, Artillery, or Combat Engineers (companies that have a single mission) will probably have a work formation at about 09:00 AM.  All members of the company are at that formation.  Soldiers who work in staff sections or unique sections, such as line medics usually just report to their desk or place of work at about 09:00.

Lunch is normally for an hour around noon. Anyone can eat in a DFAC, if they so desire.  Soldiers who have meal cards eat free, those who don’t pay, or they go home for lunch, or jump in their car and go to Burger King or one of the many snack bars on post.

The normal work day ends at 4:30 or 5:00 PM, and they are off until PT the next morning.   Except Friday, which means they are off until Monday morning.

Every Fort has at least one main PX (Post Exchange), it is like a Wal-mart, and several small exchanges, they all have a commissary, which is like a giant grocery super center, and at least one service station. There is a hospital, fire stations, a main chapel, plus other chapels, theaters, bowling alleys, gyms, and dozens of ball fields.  Most also have a “do it yourself” auto repair shop, with lifts, tools, and advice available to soldiers.  The family quarters have been contracted out to civilian companies, which has resulted in improved housing and service.  Every post, of any size, has an education center where several colleges and universities teach classes and conduct online classes.  There are six schools at the education center on Fort Leonard Wood, and ten at Fort Bragg, North Carolina.

Soldiers are highly encouraged to improve their civilian education. So much so that one promotion point is awarded for each semester hour of college, up to 100 points in an 800 point promotion system to Sergeant and Staff Sergeant.  All soldiers are automaticaly enrolled in Structured Self Development – 1 (SSD-1) when they complete their advanced individual training (AIT).  That is an 80 hour online course of military subjects, which must be completed, plus they must attend a four week Basic Leader Course before they can be promoted to Sergeant E-5.

Military pay is based on enlisted pay grades E-1 (Private) through E-9 (Sergeant Major) and officer pay grades O-1 (Second Lieutenant) through O-10 (General). Pay for grade E-1 is separated for those with less than 4 months in service and those over.  The base pay for a Private E-1 under 4 months is $1480.00 per month.  That translates to about $1,200 per month take home pay, for a single soldier, half paid twice monthly.  If the soldier is married they will also be paid Basic Allowance for Housing (BAH).  That gets them through basic and part of the next phase, which is advanced individual training (AIT).  Then regular E-1 pay is $1,600 per month, which means about $100 per month increase in take home pay.  Private E-2 comes at about six months in service, that base pay is $1,793, which means about $1,450 take home.  Private First Class (PFC) E-3 usually comes at about a year in service, that is $1,886 base, which is a little over $1,500 take home.  Specialist E-4 usually comes at about 18 months service.  A Specialist E-4 over 2 years base pay is $2,089, equaling a little over $1,600 take home.

In the coming weeks I will attempt to portray the life of different soldiers in different jobs. In the next two weeks, I will take two different soldiers, both young women, through their training to their permanent assignment.  One enlists in the Army, the other finishes college and is commissioned into the army as an officer.  Both go into the same field and are assigned to the same unit and the same office, but their working relationships, living conditions, and pay are entirely different.